HTML 5

HTML

HTML 5 is the fifth and current major version of HTML, and subsumes XHTML. The current standard, the HTML Living Standard is developed by WHATWG, which is made up of the major browser vendors (Apple, Google, Mozilla, and Microsoft), with the Living Standard also existing in an abridged version.

HTML 5 was first released in public-facing form on 22 January 2008, with a major update and “W3C Recommendation” status in October 2014. Its goals were to improve the language with support for the latest multimedia and other new features; to keep the language both easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices such as web browsers, parsers, etc., without XHTML’s rigidity; and to remain backward-compatible with older software. HTML 5 is intended to subsume not only HTML 4, but also XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML.

HTML 5 includes detailed processing models to encourage more interoperable implementations; it extends, improves and rationalizes the markup available for documents, and introduces markup and application programming interfaces (APIs) for complex web applications. For the same reasons, HTML 5 is also a candidate for cross-platform mobile applications, because it includes features designed with low-powered devices in mind.

Many new syntactic features are included. To natively include and handle multimedia and graphical content, the new , and elements were added, and support for scalable vector graphics (SVG) content and MathML for mathematical formulas. To enrich the semantic content of documents, new page structure elements such as , , , , , , , and are added. New attributes are introduced, some elements and attributes have been removed, and others such as , , and have been changed, redefined, or standardized. The APIs and Document Object Model (DOM) are now fundamental parts of the HTML 5 specification and HTML 5 also better defines the processing for any invalid documents.

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